Samarkand - mysterious and colorful city
Samarkand is home to one of the world’s finest Islamic architecture. “Samarkand” literally means- “stone fort” or “rock town” and this is evident from its many beautiful architectural monuments and ancient ruins. Poets and historians of the past called it "Rome of the East, The beauty of sublunary countries, the pearl of the Eastern Muslim World". The history of Samarkand is about 2,750 years old and it is included in the UNESCO World Heritage List due to the abundance of material and spiritual values. Samarkand is the city of legend, and its stones and walls are like live pages of history, which can be looked through endlessly. The Samarkand sightseeing tour is the ideal choice for those who want to draw themselves closer to the mysterious epochs and become familiar with the rich cultural heritage of the Uzbek nation.
The main sights of Samarkand are Imam Al-Bukhari Complex, Gur-Emir Mausoleum, Registan Square, Bibi-Khanym Mosque, Shahi-Zinda complex, Ulugbek Observatory, Mausoleum of Khodja Doniyor (Prophet Daniel) and oriental bazaar “Siyab”, the ruins of ancient Afrosiyab, wine factory, national restaurants and caravanserais.
Bibi - Khanym Mosque
The Bibi Khanym complex in Samarkand was implicit 1399–1405 with the crown jewels of Timur's (Tamerlane's) battle in India. Bibi Khanym was named in tribute to Timur's senior spouse, Sarai Mulk Khanym. The rectangular patio focuses on the Main, or Friday, Mosque, which is flanked by two huge polygonal minarets. This perspective demonstrates a part of the left minaret and adjoining divider. Regardless of extreme harm, coming about because of a seismic tremor in 1897, a significant part of the artistic ornamentation remains. The surface of the tower shaft is made out of vertical boards with interlocking geometric lines framing six-pointed star figures. The divider shows geometric tile figures incorporated with words in square Kufic script from the Kalima, the premise of the Shahada, or Islamic affirmation of confidence.
Gur - Emir Mausoleum
Amir Temur tomb was inherent 1404 for Timur's grandson Muhamed Sultan. He needed to end up their evident of throne after Timur, however in 1404 he kicked the bucket and Timur requested to buid enormous sepulcher for his adored grandson. In 1405 Timur passed on in Otrar city and his children chose to move his body and cover him close to his most loved grandson. From that time this tomb was called "entombment vault of timurids". Here two children of Timur were covered Shahruh and Miranshah, additionally second grandson Ulugbek, profound chief of Timur Muslim sheik from Medin-Mir Seid Bereke and some Shah-Hodja. Amir Temur catacomb comprises of a few sections: yard of Muhammed Sultan outfit, to one side of tomb hanaka(the place where Muslims can supplicate), to one side is medresse and in the middle the sepulcher itself finished from every side with minarets. Tragically neither the medresse nor hanaka were spared. In 1996 it was huge recreation here when Samarkand praised 660 years from Amir Temur's birthday. Unique configuration is spared inside. Decorators just drew on unique slender layer of paint. Each tombstone is produced using marble, just Timur's gravestone is from nephritis, it was brought by request of Ulugbek and put on grave of Timur. All tombstones in upper catacomb are spared exceptionally well, yet in lower as a result of surges every one of them were pulverized. Grid that set off all gravestones was made in fifteenth century from marble by Ulugbek request.
The Shakhi - Zinda Mausoleum
The Shakh-I-Zinda Ensemble is one of the world-known necropolises of Central Asia, which comprise of catacombs and other custom structures, emerged from 9-fourteenth to nineteenth hundreds of years. It is arranged in the northeastern piece of Samarkand. The Shah-i Zindah (Persian for "living ruler") group is venerated as a remembrance to Kusam-ibn-Abbas, a cousin of the Prophet Muhammad. He is considered by devotees to be covered at this site, subsequent to being slaughtered in an Arab assault in 673. While the legend portrays, that he was executed for his confidence. Be that as it may, he took his head and went into the profound well (Garden of Paradise), where's regardless he living at the present time. The Shakh-I-Zinda complex essentially had been framed amid nine (from eleventh to nineteenth) hundreds of years, and now it incorporates more than twenty structures. The outfit involves three gatherings of structures: lower, center and upper associated by four-angled domed entries privately called 'chartak'. The soonest structures go back to the 11-twelfth hundreds of years. By the start of 21 century, for the most part their bases and gravestones had remained. The most pieces of all around saved developments goes back to the 14-fifteenth hundreds of years. Reproductions of the 16-nineteenth hundreds of years were of no hugeness and had not changed the general creation and appearance of the complex. In the principal decade of 21 century the most critical recreation of Shakh-I-Zinda has been made. Be that as it may, the notable estimation of the complex unquestionably wasn't lost even with the cutting edge recreation.
Registan Square used to be the scholarly, authoritative and religious focus of the city. The word Registan signifies "a sandy spot". Focuses of all significant urban areas used to be alluded to as Registan in the Middle Ages. The territories and squares with such name were in Bukhara, Tashkent, Shahrisabz. One of the exceptional cases of the craft of urban-arranging in Central Asia was in Samarkand. Here was mirrored the complete multi centuries history of the city. At the season of Amir Temur, Registan transformed into a downtown area of Samarkand. After which, amid the season of Mirzo Ulugbek (1409-1449) it got its more conspicuous status. The Modern gathering of Registan is comprised of Ulugbek Madrassah (1417-1420), Sher-Dor Madrassali (1619-1636) and Tilla-Kori Mosque Madrassah (1647-1660). There was a religious community of spiritualists (hanaka) and tombs in the south side of the Registan square known as Childukhtaron among individuals. They were developed by the request of Kuchkunji-khan (1527—1530) and accordingly they were included (kosh) to Tilla-Kori Madrassah. The building was demolished amid the quake of 1904, and in 1910 it dismantled totally and its place tarred into a square. The present appearance of the Registan Square has been reestablished amid the most recent 100 years.
The observatory developed by Ulugh Beg on one of the slopes close Samarkand in 1428-1429 involves an uncommon spot among the city's verifiable landmarks. As indicated by Babur (Timurid ruler, originator of the Mogul Empire in India), who had by and by seen the observatory, it was a three-storeyed round building, 30 m high and 46 m over, brightened with lovely decorative tiles. The fundamental lobby contained an enormous instrument for watching the Sun, the Moon and other divine articles. The observatory was a novel development for now is the ideal time. A monstrous bend for measuring edges, 63 m long and with a range of 40.212 m, and a gigantic sextant arranged precisely along the meridian, from south to north, shaped the principle measuring instrument of the observatory. Its exactness was affirmed by contemporary cosmologists T. N. Kastalsky and V. P. Scheglov. The span of the instrument and its structure, together with the exploratory information of Ulugh Beg and his associates, secured a high exactness of cosmic perceptions.
Sherdor Madrassah was based on the site "khanaka" Ulugbek, rose in 1424 in the eastern part of the square before Ulugbek Madrassa. By the start of the XVII century khanaka alongside different structures of the territory of flimsy and disintegrated. Madrasah was worked by planner Abdul-Jabbar, an expert of stylistic theme - Muhammad Abbas. Sherdor Madrasah practically remaining before the mirror rehashes Ulugbek Madrassah, but in contorted extents. It is recognized by a too much expansive estimated covering, which could bring about slow devastation of the working inside a couple of decades after its development. The dividers are secured with citations from the Koran, on the passage gateway of the insignia of Samarkand - the panther with the sun on his back, put in the inside curve of the swastika, and the highest point of a unique Arabic script is composed "God Almighty". With awesome creative energy and yard beautified outside veneers. The structural adornment of the connected covering of coated block, mosaic units and painted with bunches of gold. In the mosaic boards yard curves are numerous climbing blossoms, buds, shaping a mind boggling example of elaborate tracery. Confronting of Sherdor madrassah particularly sub-par in style of Ulugbek Madrassah, raised in the XV century, when there was a "brilliant age" of Samarkand engineering. In any case, the concordance of both huge and little structures, exquisite outline mosaics, amazing, fresh symmetry - this places madrassa in one of the best compositional landmarks of the city.
Tilla Kori Madrasah
In 1646 on a previous caravanserai started development of Tilla-Kori madrasah, the development endured fourteen years and finished in 1660. This finishes the development of Registan Square toward the north, framing hence a complete compositional troupe, the veneer confronting south. The name of Tilla-Kori implies in interpretation "trimmed in gold." Tilla-Kori madrasah, notwithstanding its essential mission of preparing understudies who performed the part of the mosque. The principle exterior has a symmetrical creation with the focal entry, front wings with two levels "hujras" confronting the square curved specialties - overhangs and corner towers - "guldasta". In the middle - a square, cruciform in arrangement room. The surfaces of the dividers and the rooftop totally secured with painted "kundal" with bottomless gold. Was overlaid and the "mihrab" - the course to Mecca and eleven-stage "minbar" (height for the evangelist - the Imam). The wealth of gold in the embellishment for the name of Tilla-Kori. Putting the mosque was hindered by twofold arch, however the development of the external vault was not wrapped up. Open air and patio exteriors of block and secured with decorated mosaic and majolica with geometric, flower, and epigraphic designs. Strong wood entryways are adorned with sensitive botanical and epigraphic decorations.
Mausoleum (dakhma) of Sheibanids
Toward the east of Tilla-Kori madrasah found catacomb of Sheibanids, which is a heap of gravestones, the most established of which has a place with the XVI century. The originator of the forces Sheibanids was Muhammad Sheibani, who in 1500 vanquished Samarkand and Bukhara, toppling the decision where the last leaders of the Timurid tradition. Later, his relatives moved the money to Bukhara. The last illustrative of the tradition Sheibanids - Pirmuhammad in 1598 was murdered in an internecine battle.
Trade Dome Chorsu
Behind SherDor madrassah is an old exchanging arch Chorsu affirming the status of the Registan Square as a mall of medieval Samarkand. Descended to our days hexagon domed building was inherent the XV century and the start of XVIII century, was remade. In 2005 the exchange was reestablished vault, with a three-meter layer of soil cleared to recoup the full tallness of the building. Presently it is compelling artwork exhibition, which shows the work of Uzbek specialists and artists.